The study was conducted in order to evaluate adjustment disorders. Dyslexic
LD adolescents were compared with the sample of LD students not diagnosed
with specific developmental dyslexia and non LD and non-dyslexic
sample. The group selection was made using school, counselling
centre resources and 6 symptoms of learning disabilities test. Symptoms
concern such domains as: reading, writing, spelling, maths,
emotional distress and school frustration. Adjustment disorders
were defined as three independent areas of psycho-social functioning:
self esteem; sociometric status; behavior. Self esteem was assessed
using two instruments: Self - esteem Questionnaire by P. Sears and
TSCS (Tennessee Self Concept Scale) by W. H. Fitts. Sociometric status
was measured with Polish nomination technique constructed by Korczak.Behavior
disorders were examined using AAMD Scale by Nihira, Foster et al..
In total, 575 persons (13,5 - 14 years old; males and females) attending
four schools participated in the study. To investigate variables included
in the design, the three groups of 60 persons each (180 female and male
adolescents) coded as A, B and C (NLD) were chosen from the total number
of 575. (Group A - learning disabled adolescents diagnosed with specific
developmental dyslexia; group B - learning disabled adolescents not diagnosed
with dyslexia; Group C (group NLD - no learning disabilites group). As
group A contained majority of males (80%) - the sex (M/F) ratio regarding
dyslexia was 4 males to 1 female - the gender was taken into consideration.
The main hypothesis states that:
Dyslexics are likely to manifest adjustment disorders within all three areas of psychosocial functioning: self - esteem, sociometric status and behaviour.
Pupils with dyslexia (group A) are going to be more maladjusted than both pupils classified for group B and C (NLD).
The problems concerning self esteem, social approval and behavior will be more intense in group A than in both group B and C (NLD).
In order to test this hypothesis and to answer the questions, the model of ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used. To specify the significance of differences among three groups, LSD test was applied.
Statistical data analysis led to the following conclusions:
Dyslexics (group A) manifest problems concerning each of the explored areas of psychosocial functioning.
However, the adjustment disorders are manifested also by learning disabled adolescents who are not diagnosed with specific developmental dyslexia.