The comparative study was conducted in order to evaluate adjustment disorders. A sample of dyslexic learning disabled (LD) adolescents was compared with a sample of LD students without a diagnosis of specific developmental dyslexia and a sample of non-LD and non-dyslexic subjects. The process of samples/groups selection was based on school, counselling centre resources as well as on the results obtained in 6 Symptoms of Learning Disabilities Test. The LD symptoms encompassed such domains as: reading, writing, spelling, maths, overactivity, emotional distress and school frustration. Adjustment disorders were viewed from the three independent perspectives of psycho-social functioning: (1) self-esteem, self-concept; (2) sociometric status; (3) behavior. Self-esteem was assessed with two instruments: Self-esteem Questionnaire by P. Sears and TSCS (Tennessee Self Concept Scale) by W. H. Fitts. Sociometric status was measured with a Polish nomination technique constructed by J. Korczak. Behavior disorders were examined with AAMD Scale by Nihira, Foster et al.. A total sample of 575 persons (aged between 13,5 and 14; both males and females) attending four regular Polish schools participated in the study. To investigate the variables included in the empirical design, the three groups of 60 persons each (180 female and male adolescents in total) classified as A, B and C (NLD) were chosen from a total sample of 575 students. (Group/sample A - the learning disabled adolescents diagnosed with specific developmental dyslexia; group/sample B - the learning disabled adolescents without diagnosis of dyslexia; group/sample C (group NLD - no learning disabilities group). As group A consituted a majority of boys (80%) and the sex (M/F) ratio in regard to dyslexia was 4 males to 1 female, gender was taken into account.
The main and detailed hypotheses stated that:

To test these hypotheses and to answer the research questions, a model of ANOVA (an analysis of variance) was used. To determine the significance of differences among three groups, the least significant difference (LSD) test was applied.
A statistical data analysis led to the following general conclusions:


Both group A and B showed discrepancies with regard to real and ideal, actual self. The most significant difference between groups A and B (the latter scored even lower) pertained to a domain of self called "attitude towards my school performance, achievement and my intellectual abilities/activity".
Self-acceptance measured with a discrepancy indicator score did not make any difference.
Gender did not correlate with self-esteem.
The self-concept of adolescents classified as groups A and B was exposed to the higher levels of defensiveness and internal inconsistency.

Sociometric status(SS)

Students qualified for samples/groups A and B were not as popular as students of group C (NLD). Their levels of social acceptance were much lower compared to group C.
Socialization indicator score measured with the number of positive choices (nominations) was lower only in group B. There was no difference between groups A and C (NLD) in that fashion.
Gender contributed to the results obtained with respect to the number of positive choices (nominations). Unlike dyslexic males, females with dyslexia did not accept their peers, classmates.

Behavior disorders

Both A and B adolescents revealed behavior disorders such as: violent and destructive behavior, antisocial behavior, rebellious behavior, hyperactivity and impulsivity, social withdrawal, deception, stereotypes and bizarre movements, strange motor manners, strange voice manners.
Gender was an important independent variable. The males in comparison with females showed the higher levels of aggressiveness, antisocial behavior and rebelliousness.
My research findings supported the concept of comorbid psychopathology of dyslexia and learning disabilities. The comorbidities of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), ODD (oppositional defiant disorder), CD (conduct disorder), emotional disturbance, LD (learning disabilities) and dyslexia were found.
The reliability of a differential diagnosis model regarding the field of specific developmental dyslexia and other learning disorders presented by an American researcher - B. F. Pennington (1991) was also confirmed.

Dyslexia in Polish